Dispensary tips

The Dutchie Dictionary: 210 cannabis terms every retailer should know

By
Dutchie
May 13, 2022

Whether you’re opening your very first dispensary or your tenth, the always-evolving list of industry terms, acronyms, and slang can feel intimidating even to the most seasoned cannabis veterans.  

Cannabis glossary: 210 cannabis terms to know

Here at Dutchie, we like to simplify things. And we believe this information should be easily accessible under a single pane of glass, which is why we’ve created the Dutchie Dictionary: our master glossary of 210 cannabis terms sourced with dispensary owners, managers, and team members in mind. The Dictionary is a comprehensive library of terms stretching across several key areas of the industry, including:

  • Cannabis products and accessories
  • Growing and cultivation
  • Cannabis technology and compliance
  • Retail and store management
  • Taxes
  • Terpenes
  • Cannabinoids

Ready to get schooled? Jump in below—and don’t forget to bookmark this page for later!

Please note the Dutchie Dictionary is for informational purposes only. It is not intended to be regulatory, tax, or medical advice. 

Cannabis products and accessories

  1. Atomizer: An atomizer is the heating element of a vaporizer or electronic dab rig that turns concentrates into vapor.
  2. 510 thread battery: This round battery (sometimes called a pen) screws onto a 510 thread CCELL cartridge. These batteries can either operate automatically upon inhale or a button can activate them. 510 thread batteries are standard because they’re compatible with most vape cartridges.
  3. Badder: Dabbers are texture people. They usually have specific preferences about what they like their concentrates’ consistency to feel like. Badder is just what it sounds like—a dab that’s been whipped into the texture of cake batter or frosting. Badder can be made from any form of cannabis plant material, like shake, small buds, cured nugs, or even fresh, flash-frozen nugs (live resin).
  4. Banger: A banger is a nail built for withstanding high temperatures and heating concentrates. This bucket-shaped glass piece goes on the end of a bong and requires a torch or electric heating attachment to melt the oil and convert it into smoke.
  5. BHO: BHO is an acronym that stands for butane hash oil. It means that the cannabis plant material or hash was heated with the solvent butane to extract either a budder, shatter, or wax concentrate. BHO is very potent and should rarely and cautiously be advised for new consumers.
  6. Blunts: A blunt is the next step up from a joint or pre-roll. Blunts are cannabis cigars that can hold multiple grams of ground flower. Historically, they were made by altering a real tobacco cigar, but now they are often made with hemp wraps or even banana leaves.
  7. Budder: Budder is made with either butane, alcohol, or water as the solvent. Sometimes the CO2 extraction method is used to pull out cannabinoids and terpenes. The oily extract is heated to about 100 degrees and undergoes additional pressure. The outcome often has a golden hue and a light, fluffy consistency.
  8. Cartridge: A vaporizer cartridge is a cylinder-shaped device pre-filled with cannabis concentrate. The top features a mouthpiece and the bottom screws into a corresponding battery to connect the heating element.
  9. Clones: A clone is a clipping of a cannabis plant that someone can propagate into another plant carrying the same genetics as the mother. After it grows new roots, it can be replanted and grown under proper care until harvest. Clones are legal to sell in certain dispensaries, depending on local regulations.
  10. Concentrates: Also known as extracts or dabs, concentrates are oils extracted from the cannabis plant to provide potent results. Each type of concentrate is processed uniquely based on the quality of the plant material used and the desired end product. Concentrates include diamonds, wax, shatter, budder, crumble, and more.
  11. Crumble: Crumble is a concentrate with a dry, malleable, and fragmented appearance. Unlike other extracts, a crumble or honeycomb wax can be used as a bowl topper on flower and a user can even apply it with their fingers because it won’t stick to a user’s skin like other concentrates.
  12. Delta-9: Δ9 is the abbreviated name of Δ9–tetrahydrocannabinol, commonly known as THC. THC is the primary compound found in the resinous glands of a cannabis plant and is directly responsible for psychoactive effects. THC creates a feeling of psychoactive euphoria for consumers..
  13. Delta-8: An isomer of Delta-9, Delta-8 is another psychoactive cannabinoid produced by the cannabis plant. While similar to Δ9 THC in structure, Delta-8 THC is more often extracted from industrial hemp rather than medical-grade cannabis. The effects of Delta-8 THC are also similar to that of Delta-9 THC, but much less potent.
  14. Diamonds: Diamonds is a term for THCA, a clear cannabinoid that looks like a gem or precious stone. Diamonds can be sold alone or paired with a terpene sauce to give the consumer more flavor and more substantial effects. THCA, when consumed alone, often provides a user with a clear mind with enhanced focus.
  15. Distillate: A highly potent concentrate, distillate is a viscous oil extracted from cannabis and distilled further by removing other plant compounds and focusing on high levels of one cannabinoid (usually CBD or THC). Distillate oil can be dabbed, used for making edibles or topicals, or vaporized.
  16. Dizzovables: Dissolvable cannabis products are water-soluble and dissolve in the user’s mouth upon consumption. Like cannabis beverages, this method of consumption typically has a quick onset. Dissolvables can come in the form of tablets or powders.
  17. Edibles: Edibles are infused cannabis products that users can eat to experience a prolonged and potent effect. Edibles can come in many forms, from THC ice cream to pop rocks!
  18. Flower: Smokable, trichome-covered cannabis buds are referred to as flower. Flower is the most popular form of cannabis due to its legacy and versatility.
  19. Full-spectrum: Full-spectrum cannabis products contain the maximum cannabinoids and benefits of the plant. See entourage effect to understand the well-rounded sensation these products offer consumers.
  20. Hash: Hash is an abbreviation for hashish. Hashish is a resinous extract of the plant made from trichomes that can look similar to kief. Kief and hash both come from trichome heads, but hashish is typically compressed into small squares and can bubble when heated for consumption. 
  21. Infused flower: Infused flower is smokable cannabis that has been coated in concentrates for an even more potent effect. See: moon rocks.
  22. Kief: The golden crystals that fall off of a cannabis plant after the flower is sifted are referred to as kief. They originate from trichome heads. The powdery substance known as kief can be used for topping bowls of flower.
  23. Kush: Kush is a type of indica flower that naturally grows in the Hindu Kush mountain region west of the Himalayas. Kush strains have made their way to North America and they’re known for their relaxing body sensation that can loosen a user’s limbs. 
  24. Live resin: Live resin is a form of concentrate or extract that is vaporized or combined with flower and smoked. Made from fresh, flash-frozen material to keep the plant as close to “live” as possible—hence the name "live" resin. The plant material retains more terpene saturation than dried and cured material. The terpenes are then passed to the oil.
  25. Moon rocks: This is a magical term for doubly-infused flower. Moon rocks are cured cannabis buds coated with oil and rolled in powdery kief. They are as beautiful as they are potent.
  26. Pre-rolls: Pre-rolls are joints; they're pre-rolled ground cannabis wrapped tightly in hemp paper that a user lights on one end and inhales from the other.
  27. PHO: PHO is a type of concentrate that uses propane as the extraction solvent. PHO stands for propane hash oil.
  28. Rosin: Rosin is a concentrate made free of solvents or chemicals. Instead, rosin is made using heat and pressure—the compression process results in a potent oil with a similar consistency to peanut butter. Rosin is also used to fill high-end vape cartridges. 
  29. RSO (Rick Simpson Oil): Named for the Canadian cannabis activist himself—Rick Simpson oil is one of the most potent oils available on the market. Typically sold in a syringe, the oil is decarboxylated meaning it doesn’t need heat to activate. Consumers can eat it directly from the tube–but the full-spectrum taste isn’t the most appealing on its own because it's unrefined and extracted from ethanol. RSO is popular among medical patients. 
  30. Sauce: Sauce is a viscous, sticky concentrate with a high terpene content that makes it runny and full of flavor. Also called terpene sauce, it’s categorized as a high-terpene full-spectrum extract (HTFSE).
  31. Shatter: The cannabis concentrate known as shatter is like its namesake—hard, not as high in terpenes, easy to handle, and “shatters” apart easily. Shatter has a transparent, amber appearance that looks glassy when cold, but more like thick honey when warm. The level of transparency and richness of color vary based on certain factors, such as the amount of moisture and heat used during the extraction process.
  32. Shake: Shake is the plant material that falls off of cured buds during weighing or moving. Producers tend to use it to make pre-rolls.
  33. Smalls (B-buds): Also commonly known as popcorn buds, smalls are B-grade buds that grow around the bottom of the plant and don’t reach a full bud size. They tend to either be sold in a bundled deal or used for making concentrates.
  34. Sublinguals: Sublinguals are cannabis oils placed under the tongue that dissolve immediately for quick effects. Sublinguals can be packaged like tinctures or sold in spray form.
  35. Sugar: Just like other concentrates that follow their namesake, sugar is an extract that looks just like wet brown sugar. Sugar wax is made just like shatter, but the product is agitated to create a fragmented texture.
  36. THC: THC is the most popular psychoactive cannabinoid. See Delta 9.
  37. Tinctures: Tinctures come in many forms, including alcohol-based, glycerin-based, oil-based, and sugar (syrup)-based. Although both are orally ingested, tinctures are usually faster acting than edibles and have shorter lasting effects on the body. The delicate tissue under the tongue and in the mouth absorbs cannabinoids at the drop site.
  38. Topicals: Lotions, massage oils, bath bombs, and cannabis topicals are great for relieving tension without the intoxicating effects associated with consuming cannabis. Although topicals pass through the skin/muscle barrier, most don't enter the bloodstream, making cannabis topicals ideal for those seeking relief who can't risk a positive drug test.
  39. Transdermal patches: Although most topicals don't enter the bloodstream, transdermal patches do. Patches are applied to the skin over a veiny body area and preferably in a place with limited friction for more extended wear. Unlike edibles or tinctures where the effects can peak after a certain length of time, transdermal patches allow for slow but consistent dosing over 8-12 hours.
  40. Vaporizer: A vaporizer is a device that heats up dry flower or extract enough to transmit its active ingredients via vapor. 
  41. Wax: Cannabis wax is an agitated extract that results in a waxy appearance. With every concentrate, the quality of bud used to create it is indicative of the quality of the outcome. A lighter hue and a softer consistency are indicators of high quality.

Growing and cultivation

  1. Aeroponics: Growing plants with no soil or aggregate medium is called aeroponics. Aeroponics entails a free air, misting environment to moisturize the plants. This method requires water and liquid nutrients to create clones. It also requires a soilless medium like rockwool to grow full cannabis plants.
  2. Backcross (BX): When cultivators grow a strain that produces a desired effect or a high yield volume, breeders will cross it with another parent plant, a genetic clone of itself, or an offspring plant from the same variety to enhance that desired outcome. Backcrossing is a common growing tactic in the world of cannabis.
  3. Batch: This term is used to group plants and products with identical attributes together, generally harvested around similar times. 
  4. Batch number: A batch number is any distinct group of numbers, letters, or symbols assigned by the cultivator or manufacturer to a batch of products or plant material.
  5. Breeding: Breeding is how cannabis plant genetics are crossed to create new strains. Female cannabis plants are the ones that can flower, but breeding entails pollinating them with male (parent) plants to produce buds.
  6. Cannabis: Cannabis is a psychoactive plant belonging to the Cannabaceae family and used primarily for medical or recreational purposes. The main psychoactive component of cannabis is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is one of the 400+ known compounds in the plant, including at least 65 other cannabinoids.
  7. Calyx: In female cannabis plants, the calyx is the part that forms first as the plant flowers. It is delicate tissue that forms tiny leaves enveloping the prospective seed. The calyx provides stability to the rest of the bud structure as it flowers.
  8. Cross: A cross strain is a cultivation term for growing a strain from combined parent plant genetics. The new variety that results is called a cross. 
  9. Cultivator: A cultivator is a farmer who grows cannabis plants. A cultivator may partner with a distributor or sell their flower directly to a dispensary. The cultivator tends to the plant throughout its lifecycle and therefore is the best resource for understanding a strain’s genetic history and how it may affect the user.
  10. Cured (flower): After harvest, cannabis buds must be dried and cured to prolong their shelf life. The drying process revolves around drawing out excess plant moisture and chlorophyll. Curing stops any additional loss of moisture, and preserves terpene flavors, aromas, cannabinoids, and effects. Curing takes anywhere from a couple of weeks to a month—and if done correctly—can extend the life of finished, sealed cannabis for up to two years.
  11. Flowering time: Flowering time is the period of time it takes a cannabis plant to grow buds. The length of time depends on the plant's genetics, but it typically takes about two months for them to flower.
  12. Genetics: A cannabis plant’s unique set or arrangement of genotypes and phenotypes are its genetics. A cultivator uses crosses and backcrosses to get a specific genetic outcome—usually with high terpene percentages. 
  13. Harvest batch: A harvest batch is a plant or group of plants of the same strain that have been harvested at the same time and with the same growing methods; harvest batches may contain all or part of any plant batch, and can also include plants from differing plant batches as long as they are the same strain.
  14. Heirloom: Heirloom cannabis plants naturally originated in a specific location, but their seeds were collected by cultivators and grown in a new land. Heirloom is a general term, whereas landrace strains occur in particular regions.
  15. Hydroponics: Growing cannabis crops indoor or without a greenhouse can cause cultivators to get creative. Hydroponics is a solution for growing without soil. This method uses sand, water, or another lightweight material and nutrients to grow cannabis plants to full harvest. The open-root system is efficient because it allows the plants to intake oxygen easily.
  16. Immature plants: Immature plants are female cannabis plants that haven’t flowered yet. Their leaves are much smaller in this stage, and buds haven’t appeared.
  17. Landrace: In cannabis cultivation, the term “landrace cannabis” refers to strains of cannabis that developed naturally in the environment over the course of centuries. Examples of landrace strains include Sour Diesel, Durban Poison, Afghani, Hindu Kush, Thai, Chocolate Thai, Acapulco Gold, Panama Red, and Colombian Gold.
  18. Mature plants: Cannabis plants that have grown to full height, have flowered, and are ready to harvest are known as mature female plants.
  19. OG (ocean grown): Since terms like landrace refer to the geographical location of naturally-growing strains, OG does the same. OG stands for ocean grown and refers to strains grown in coastal areas of California. OG Kush is a famous example of this varietal.
  20. Phenotype: A plant’s phenotype is a combination of its genotype and the environmental factors that affect its physical characteristics. A plant’s phenotype can change based on its grow type and light exposure.
  21. Pistil: Pistils are the calyx hairs on a female cannabis plant that indicate the plant’s ripeness. Pistils are the reproductive plant parts that receive pollen from male plants to flower and change color as the plant matures.
  22. Propagation material: Propagation means to breed new plants from a parent. So, propagation material relates to seeds, clones, and tissue cultures. When it comes to retail inventory, propagation material is tracked as that specific material until the plants reach their vegetative phase, at which point they are converted into living plant records. (See immature plants).
  23. Ruderalis: There is some debate as to whether cannabis ruderalis is considered a subspecies or a separate species to cannabis. But, this plant type is native to Asia and Europe, where the plants appear short with thick stems and test with lower potencies. Cannabis ruderalis has been dubbed the “auto-flowering” plant because it can bloom in less than a month.
  24. Seeds: A seed is the fertilized ovule of the plant. Like any other plant seed, cannabis seeds contain the genetic blueprint of a plant. Feminized seeds are the ideal type to buy and sell in a dispensary because they are the ones with the ability to produce flower.
  25. Strains: Individual strains represent a specific sub-species of any plant of the genus Cannabis.
  26. Trichomes: The word trichome comes from the Greek word “Tríchōma,” which means “growth of hair.” They are near-microscopic, threadlike outgrowths that look very similar to hair. Trichomes are different from pistils and are vital because they produce cannabinoids. High-quality cannabis strains are potent because they have more (and larger) trichomes than others. Trichomes produce cannabinoids, and every strain has a unique assortment of them, creating specific characteristics.

Cannabis tech and compliance

  1. Age gate: An age gate ensures that no one shopping for cannabis online is a minor. It’s the digital version of ID verification that typically takes place in-store.  Note, however, that a digital age gate is not a substitute for the mandatory ID check at the time of pickup or delivery.
  2. API: This is an acronym that stands for Application Programming Interface. The interface portion refers to how two applications communicate. In a custom ecommerce solution like Dutchie Ecommerce Plus, the API is our trusted ecommerce platform backend, allowing dispensaries to design their consumer-facing frontend. Our open API makes it compatible with our compliance, menu, and checkout features.
  3. BioTrack: Like METRC, BioTrack is a seed-to-sale cannabis tracking software that tracks the plant's lifecycle for state regulators.
  4. Central Patient Repository (CPR): This is a service provided by METRC in some states that tracks what patients purchase and returns the remaining limits at any given time. 
  5. Delivery manifest: All legal cannabis product movement must be recorded and delivery is no different. Depending on the state, the approved seed-to-sale software used for inventory intakes typically has a delivery manifest feature, a document that tracks precisely which products will be delivered to each address. If anything should change along the delivery route, drivers should report that within the manifest.
  6. Compliance: In cannabis, compliance can take many forms. The term compliance refers to a business’s ability to conduct business in accordance with their local and state or provincial legal ruleset. It can also refer to a dispensary adhering to Dutchie’s or a payment partner’s rules as it relates to the acceptance of different payment methods.
  7. Conversions: This is when someone changes an amount of cannabis into another cannabis product. For example, converting bulk flower into pre-rolls. Conversions should be tracked in inventory—where the input of one inventory type can yield the output of an additional inventory type, resulting in the appropriate inventory levels being incremented or decremented accordingly. Conversions may also track waste.
  8. Discrepancy: A discrepancy simply means mismatched information. Differences should be corrected compliantly only when a manual error was made and an inventory manager can account for the accurate movement of a product.
  9. Exit package: This piece of cannabis product packaging is required for compliant sales. Exit bags should have approved child-proof locking mechanisms for safety. Some cannabis products are already heat-sealed or child-proofed, but oftentimes customers will need to exit a dispensary with their goodies in one of these bags.
  10. Initial inventory: The supply entered when implementing a state-traceability software representing current on-hand inventory at licensed facilities.
  11. Inventory lot: The lot means the flower, leaves, or other plant matter from one or more cannabis plants from the same batch.
  12. Inventory transfers: The documented event logging the transport of cannabis or any related products from one licensed facility to another.
  13. Inventory types: The categories the corresponding inventory lots go in.
  14. Lab results: Lab results are records entered by testing laboratory facilities that provide quality assurance analysis for cannabis products.
  15. METRC: When a state introduces recreational cannabis legislation, they may introduce new seed-to-sale software systems, which track every cannabis plant that is grown, goes to market and is then sold to either a recreational or medical consumer. METRC is unique because it only offers a premium government-facing tracking program instead of software solutions for retailers. METRC is used by many states and stands for “Marijuana Enforcement Tracking Reporting Compliance”.
  16. Package ID: Any amount of cannabis product that may be sold, processed, or transferred must be placed into one or more containers, each having a unique ID number created in METRC. A package may represent anything from a single sample, a large amount of flower, or a shipment of 100 units of an edible. A package ID may also be referred to as: a global ID, external ID, SKU, package number, tag number, package tag, barcode, item number, or UID.
  17. Point of sale: The software (and sometimes hardware) that the dispensary uses to keep track of inventory, fulfill orders, and process transactions. A budtender completes a customer’s transaction at the POS (point of sale) register.
  18. Purchasing limits: A purchase limit is the maximum legal amount of a product (or product type) that a customer can purchase within a given timeframe. Specific markets define purchase limit timeframes in various frequencies, including per transaction, per day, and per month. State or province regulations determine an area’s purchasing limits.
  19. RFID Tag: This type of tag is sometimes interchangeably used with the package ID. This comes into play during cultivation/production. Learn more.
  20. Seed-to-sale: Seed-to-sale refers to the lifecycle of the cannabis, from growing the plant to the item going home with a user. Seed-to-sale tracking allows cannabis businesses to track products throughout the plant’s lifecycle from cultivation to sale. The goal is to ensure accountability and transparency. 
  21. Track-and-trace: This refers to how governing bodies track products’ locations and development throughout the entire production process, from cultivation to sale. Since-to-sale relates to the dispensary’s workflow, Track-and-trace relates to the government’s regulatory workflow.
  22. Traceability system: A traceability system provides information about products during the cultivation, harvest, production process, and supply chain route by recording movement through barcodes or RFID tags. 
  23. Transfer: A product transfer requires a moving manifest to move product to the testing lab, processors, wholesalers, etc. A transfer must be created anytime a package moves from one physical location or licensed facility to another. A transfer can be rejected by package or completely. The dispensary can reject a package and send it back to a vendor.

Retail terminology

  1. Activation time: Activation time is the period between a user ingesting a cannabis product and the individual feeling those effects kick in. Different consumption methods provide varying result times. For instance, smoking flower has a quick activation time, whereas edibles can take 45 minutes to an hour to feel.
  2. Back of house: Back of house is commonly abbreviated “BOH” and refers to every workflow that a shopper can’t see. In cannabis, this would include all the behind-the-scenes work, like inventory management and cannabis order intakes, safely performed inside the back portion of the building. 
  3. Beehive delivery model (bulk delivery): Beehive delivery occurs when the same driver takes multiple delivery orders in a batch along a route that dictates the order of each stop. We refer to it as bulk delivery.
  4. Budtender: Budtender is the US term for a dispensary salesperson. A budtender should be able to teach shoppers about the effects of certain strains, advise on consumption methods, and help the customer find the cannabis product they’re looking for. They also typically act as cashiers.
  5. Caregiver: Valid medical patients can appoint a caregiver on their state application. The caregiver is able to pick up their cannabis medicine on their behalf at the local dispensary. Caregivers are given all the same perks as the medical patient (tax cuts and access to medical-potency products).
  6. Cashless ATM: A cashless ATM is simply a terminal that allows you to run an ATM card for a certain amount, debiting directly from a customer’s bank account, usually for a standard ATM fee. Rather than having a large ATM machine that may attract unwanted attention at your store, you could use a mobile terminal that doesn’t require replacing large quantities of cash. 
  7. Click-and-collect: Click-and-collect is the Canadian term for ordering cannabis products online instead of saying “in-store pickup” or “curbside”.
  8. Co-op: For medical patients, cooperatives are groups that are permitted to grow their medicine. The rules depend on the state that co-op resides in, but typically every member must be entered into the medical cannabis authorization database and have a medical cannabis recognition card. Co-ops are harder to find now that cultivation is spreading.
  9. Decriminalized: Decriminalizing a substance means changing the criminal classification status and reducing bans or legal limitations around the possession and use of that substance.
  10. Deli-style: Deli-style flower is a “weigh-as-you-go” method for dispensaries to allow customers to select their bud and watch it get weighed at the checkout counter. Deli-style flower sales are only allowed in specific markets based on regulations. 
  11. Distributor: A distributor is a licensed person or company who acts as the middleman between the grower and the cannabis consumer. This person will follow local regulations to distribute cannabis products from cultivators to dispensaries. Depending on the area, some distributors are required to arrange lab testing of a finished product. 
  12. Digital payments: Electronic bank-to-bank payment systems connect a shopper’s bank account digitally in seconds. Digital payments make your internal reporting easier, especially when integrated with your other dispensary tools. Our new product Dutchie Pay is an example of a digital payment solution.
  13. Dynamic delivery: Dynamic delivery is a delivery system that operates with on-the-go inventory. It’s the same as the Ice cream truck model and more efficient than drivers making consistent stops back at the brick-and-mortar shop. 
  14. Ecommerce: An electronic method of shopping online through a digital storefront. Dispensaries can see a 30% increase in average order value when they promote their products on an ecommerce site like Dutchie’s.
  15. Eighth: An 8th is 3.5 grams of smokable cannabis flower. 8 eighths are what make up an ounce.
  16. End product: A type of inventory produced by a processing facility from intermediate products, to include the subcategories of liquid edible, solid edible, concentrate for inhalation, topical, infused mix, sample jar, usable cannabis, capsules, tinctures, transdermal patches, and suppositories; end products may be transferred to retailer facilities for sale to consumers.
  17. Entourage effect: Cannabinoids and terpenes cause effects on their own, however, when combined, they create unique effects particular to the combination. This united effect is called the entourage effect.
  18. Front of house: A dispensary’s front of house (FOH) is the sales floor. It’s where the display products live and where customers can talk to budtenders, scan menus, shop, and checkout.
  19. Gram: The incremental weight system of smokeable flower is measured in grams. A gram is one-thousandth of a kilogram.
  20. Hybrid: A hybrid strain or product is a cannabis type that produces balanced effects. 
  21. Integrations: How technology products integrate is really important to your business. Ideally, you want your tools to communicate in real time, so there is a single source of truth for your dispensary. Your POS, ecommerce, and payment systems should all integrate to prevent compliance discrepancies. 
  22. Intermediate products: A type of inventory produced at a processing facility, to include the subcategories of cannabis mix, concentrates, and food-grade concentrates, and infused cooking medium. Intermediate products are used to produce end products, but can’t be transferred to a retailer until they are converted to their end product state.
  23. Ice cream truck model: When it comes to cannabis delivery, an ice cream truck model of delivery means that cannabis trucks can carry a stock of mobile inventory reflected on unique menus. A driver can take, fulfill, and deliver multiple orders while out in the field, just like an ice cream truck would. See dynamic delivery.
  24. Indica: A subspecies of the cannabis plant, indica is a type characterized by its thick plant stems and wide leaves. Indicas are typically classified by their relaxing effects because of the terpenes they tend to produce. Indicas are reported to help users unwind and rest.
  25. Isolate: An isolate in the cannabis industry is the purest product available because it leaves only the desired cannabinoid and no other plant material. Isolates narrow down one specific effect vs. a full-spectrum, entourage effect.
  26. Licensee: A person licensed to cultivate, manufacture, distribute, sell, or test cannabis. This person may run a production facility, a processing facility, a retailer facility, a producer/processor facility, a licensed transporter, a co-op, or a tribe.
  27. Looping: Looping is the illegal process of a consumer purchasing more than their legal limit by “looping around the block” and returning to either the same store or a new dispensary to try to purchase more cannabis.
  28. MME: An MME is an acronym for a medical marijuana establishment.
  29.  MSO: An MSO is an acronym for a multi-state operator, so a retail chain that operates in more than one state. MSOs require advanced POS and ecommerce technology to keep processes running smoothly at each location.
  30. Ounce: An ounce is 28 grams of smokable cannabis flower. Another term for an ounce (oz.) is a “zip”.
  31. Order types: An order type is simply the available method for a customer to shop and a budtender to fulfill their order from. Order types include in-store, kiosk, curbside, drive-thru, and delivery.
  32. Order limits: see purchasing limits. These vary by state or province.
  33.  Pizza delivery model (single delivery): Like pizza delivery methods, these are one-at-a-time deliveries that are received & packaged at the dispensary, manifested, and then taken directly to the customer.
  34. Potency: Potency is the amount of active cannabinoids in a cannabis product. Customers often shop for a high THC potency, but some consumers may also like to learn about different types of potencies and how they work together (like a THC:CBD ratio).
  35. Processing facility: A licensed facility in which cannabis plant extractions and infusions take place is referred to as a processing facility (an extraction lab, for example).
  36. Production facility: This is a business that acquires, possesses, cultivates, delivers, transfers, transports, supplies, or sells cannabis. For example, a growhouse is a production facility.
  37. Production runs: Production runs are the extraction batch created by producing concentrated cannabis from one or more harvest batches of cannabis.
  38. Quarter: A quarter is a 7 gram container of smokable cannabis flower.
  39. Recreational: Adult-use cannabis legally allowed in a state or province is known as recreational.
  40. Retailer: A business that sells or dispenses cannabis or related goods and educational materials to medical cannabis patients and/or retail consumers.
  41. Sativa: Cannabis sativa is native to Eastern Asia and Central and South America. Its plant struct grows tall with slim leaves. Sativas are typically classified by their stimulating effects because of the terpenes they tend to produce. Sativas are reported to help users focus or boost energy.
  42. Teenth: 1.75g (1/16oz), also known as a “half-eighth”.
  43. Type 9 License (California only): A non-storefront retailer that conducts retail cannabis sales exclusively by delivery.
  44. Type 10 License (California only): A non-vertically-integrated retailer license.
  45. Type 12 License (California only): A microbusiness that engages  in at least 3 of the following commercial cannabis activities: cultivation, manufacturing, distribution, and retail sale.
  46. Vertically-integrated: A business that is involved in both production and sales is vertically-integrated. It can also be defined as a dispensary that cultivates or produces cannabis products; a retailer which is its own supplier.
  47. Wholesaler: A person or company that sells finished cannabis products to a retail storefront is called a wholesaler. Wholesalers typically produce their own brands or line of branded products.

Cannabis taxes

  1. Arm’s length transaction: When it comes to California cannabis taxes, sometimes a dispensary may have products that are taxed on the wholesale (arm’s length) and some based on the retail price (non-arm’s length). Tax laws are designed to treat the results of a transaction differently when parties are dealing at arm's length vs. when they aren’t.
  2. Excise tax: A tax on a manufactured good purchased from the producer. This tax doesn’t apply in California.  
  3. Exclusive tax: The opposite of inclusive tax, exclusive taxes are not included in the item’s display price.
  4. Inclusive tax: Including the tax cost in the total display price of the product.
  5. Non-arm’s length transaction: When it comes to California cannabis taxes, sometimes a dispensary may have products that are taxed on the wholesale (arm’s length) and some based on the retail price (non-arm’s length). If the buyers and sellers of a product have a business connection with each other (e.g. part of the same company, the parent owns one business and the child owns the other, etc.), they may receive a different tax rate.
  6. Tax obligation: A tax obligation is the amount of tax required to be paid to state, local, or federal government. 
  7. 280E tax code: Section 280E of the Internal Revenue Code prohibits retailers from deducting business expenses concerning controlled or regulated substances like cannabis.

Terpenes and types of terpenes

  1. Terpenes: Terpenes are a broad array of botanical compounds that contain the scent, flavor, and essential therapeutic uses of a plant. Terpenes are secreted in the same glands as cannabinoids like THC and CBD. This can differentiate the high a user will experience based on the dominance of the terpene associated with that strain.
  2. Caryophyllene: Caryophyllene, or beta-Caryophyllene, is known for its wide variety of potential health benefits both physically & mentally. This terpene has a unique ability to bind to the CB2 receptors. When Caryophyllene-rich cannabis hits the CB2 receptors, it can help target minor pain or discomfort. Beta-Caryophyllene is also approved for use in food by the FDA & is commonly found in black pepper, cinnamon, and basil. 
  3. Humulene: Commonly found in ginseng, ginger, & hops, Humulene is known to lend its robust characteristics to the different scents of cannabis. This terpene has been used in holistic practices for hundreds of years due to its ability to promote a sense of wellbeing. 
  4. Pinene: Pinene is a bicyclic monoterpene chemical compound. There are two structural isomers of Pinene found in nature: α-Pinene and β-Pinene. It's most commonly recognized in nature as the fresh pine scent given off by trees in a living forest. 
  5. Terpinolene: Terpinolene is a cannabis terpene with strong aromatic properties, making it a popular ingredient in perfumes, lotions, and soaps. While this may not be a dominant terpene such as Myrcene or Linalool, it still has the potential to positively affect the endocannabinoid system through its numerous potential health benefits. Terpinolene is also naturally occurring in apples, tea trees, and sage. 
  6. Myrcene: One of the most common terpenes found in cannabis. Myrcene is known to increase the effects of the psychoactive properties of THC yet holds the health benefits found in CBD. Commonly found in parsley, mangoes & hops, Myrcene is a good option for those looking to add a little relaxation to their overall experience. 
  7. Limonene: Limonene is found in citrus rinds and is the second most occurring terpene in nature. This terpene has been used in high dosages as a catalyst in topical products to allow other chemical compounds to pass through the skin for absorption in the blood. Limonene is reported to support a user’s mood.
  8. Alpha-Pinene: A commonly found terpene in cannabis, alpha-Pinene lends its name to its easily recognized signature scent—reminiscent of pine trees. Alpha-Pinene is already being used in plants to limit the growth of undesired bacteria as it is the most commonly found terpene in nature. Many users report a boost of energy or brain function when consuming a cannabis product high in alpha-Pinene. 
  9. Linalool: Linalool is a multi-use terpene that carries a substantial calming effect and the ability to ease restlessness. Found in rosewood, coriander, and lavender, Linalool is a prevalent terpene commonly present in over 200 species of plants worldwide. Linalool can help the user achieve a little R & R. 
  10. Ocimene: Ocimene is a terpene commonly found in cannabis and a wide array of fruits and vegetables. Some familiar fruits and spices that contain Ocimene are parsley, mango, basil, allspice, and pepper. Historically it has been widely used in perfumes but has recently been shown to have potential benefits as a bacteria-fighting compound. 
  11. Caryophyllene oxide: Caryophyllene oxide is a sesquiterpene known best for its presence in rosemary, basil, hops, and of course, cannabis. 
  12. Beta-Pinene: beta-Pinene is a monoterpene and one of the two isomer compounds that make up Pinene. This terpene is commonly associated with use in turpentine and luxury goods like perfumes and colognes. Users report increased mental clarity and executive function when using strains high in beta-Pinene. 
  13. Beta-Myrcene: beta-Myrcene, a.k.a. Myrcene, is one of the most common terpenes found in cannabis. Myrcene is known to increase the effects of the psychoactive properties of THC yet holds the health benefits found in CBD. Commonly found in parsley, mangoes & hops, Myrcene is a good option for those looking to add a little relaxation to their overall experience. 
  14. Para-Isopropyltoluene: Para-Isopropyltoluene is also known as para-Cymene, and is commonly referred to as p-Cymene. P-Cymene is a monoterpene compound with a sweet citrus aroma. It is found in many plants' essential oils, including thyme, grapefruit, oregano, and cannabis. Para-Cymene can be found in many different topical applications.
  15. Fenchol: Fenchol contains therapeutic benefits as well as a strong desirable fragrance. It can naturally occur in basil and is credited with giving basil its signature nose. 
  16. Para-Cymene: Para-Cymene, also known as p-Cymene, is a monoterpene compound with a sweet citrus aroma. It is found in many plants' essential oils, including thyme,  grapefruit, oregano, and cannabis. Para-Cymene can be found in many different topical applications. 
  17. Camphene: Camphene is a minor terpene found in turpentine, valerian, ginger oil, and camphor oil. It has a musty Doug fir and earth scent that sometimes gets mistaken for Myrcene which is usually found in higher concentrations. Camphene historically was used in traditional medicine for cleaning wounds.
  18. Bisabolol: A secondary terpene found in cannabis, a-Bisabolol is an aromatic terpene that carries a slew of potential health benefits. Most notably present in German chamomile, a-Bisabolol may also act as a relaxant for those looking to ease restlessness. While secondary terpenes take a back seat to the primary terpenes, they may work synergistically with other terpenes and cannabinoids to enhance the desired effect.
  19. Eucalyptol: Eucalyptol (Cineole) carries the scent of mint and spice. Its nose resembles menthol.
  20. Nerolidol-2: Nerolidol-2 also known as trans-nerolidol is one of two monoterpene isomers that make up Nerolidol. Nerolidol is a secondary terpene that gives depth to scents of plants like ginger, lavender, oranges, lemongrass, and tea tree. Nerolidol has a sweet and flowery smell with apple, rose, and citrus hints. It’s been found to promote healthy sleep.
  21. Beta-Eudesmol: Beta-Eudesmol is an oxygenated sesquiterpene. More research into this compound is necessary to determine its potential health benefits. 
  22. Cedrene: Cedrene is used in an array of everyday products for the unique cedar aroma it conveys. 
  23. Camphor: Camphor is a terpene that comes mainly from the camphor tree, which grows wild all over Asia and has been introduced to parts of Australia. It has a somewhat tangy, sharp, and woody aroma that leaves a menthol-like tingling in a user’s nostrils. 
  24. Trans-Nerolidol: Trans-Nerolidol is an aromatic secondary terpene found in various botanicals, including cannabis. It has a scent that contains woody, citrus, and floral notes, and can be found in high concentrations in plants like lemongrass, ginger, tea tree, and jasmine. Trans-Nerolidol has a long history of being used for its relaxing effects. If a consumer is looking to find a strain with high concentrations of this terpene—look for Tangilope and Sour Kush or varieties closely related to them. 
  25. Beta-Caryophyllene oxide: Beta-Caryophyllene oxide is simply the post-oxidized form of beta-Caryophyllene. Beta-Caryophyllene oxide has been reported to soothe tension and soreness.
  26. Citral: Citral carries many potential health benefits making this secondary terpene worth looking for. Also found naturally in lemongrass and citrus fruits, Citral has been known to contribute to the uplifting experience already found in some strains. 
  27. Cymene: A terpene well-known for its calming and relaxing properties. Cymene naturally occurs in oregano, cumin, thyme, and cannabis.
  28. Ocimene-1: Ocimene-1 is also known as alpha Ocimene or a-Ocimene, one of three monoterpenes that make up Ocimene. Ocimene is commonly found in cannabis and a wide array of fruits and vegetables. Some familiar fruits and spices that contain Ocimene are parsley, mango, basil, allspice, and pepper. Historically it has been widely used in perfumes but has recently been shown to potentially provide relief of minor pain to consumers.
  29. Valencene: Valencene is a terpene commonly associated with citrus fruits like its namesake, the Valencia orange. Other citrus fruits that contain Valencene are grapefruits and tangerines. More recently, Valencene has been shown to work effectively as an insect repellant.
  30. Nerolidol: Nerolidol, also known as Trans-nerolidol, is a secondary terpene that gives depth to scents of plants like ginger, lavender, oranges, lemongrass, and tea tree. Nerolidol has a sweet and flowery smell with apple, rose, and citrus hints. It has been found to have relaxing properties.
  31. Ocimene-2: Ocimene-2, also known as beta-Ocimene, has been found in higher concentrations in the following strains: Sour Diesel, Golden Goat, Space Queen, Harle-Tsu, Strawberry Cough, and OG Kush. 
  32. Isoborneol: Isoborneol has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years due to its relaxing properties. Its slight menthol aroma and its effects make it a common terpene found in topical cannabis products. It is also found in the mugwort plant. 
  33. Sabinene: Sabinene is a terpene found in various plant species, including pepper and juniper. This terpene is one of the compounds that gives pepper its spice. It has been shown to offer relief of minor pain. 
  34. Terpineol: Terpineol is known to make skin patches more relaxing, calming, and effective. Commonly found as an ingredient in soaps and lotions, Terpineol is also found naturally occurring in eucalyptus, lilacs, and pine trees. While Terpineol doesn't contribute any psychoactive properties, the potential health benefits alone make it worth trying.
  35. Isopulegol: Isopulegol is a terpene that is the chemical precursor to menthol and is known to have a rather fresh and minty flavor and scent and has long been used in the perfume and fragrance industry. 
  36. Citronellol: Citronellol is a terpene with many potential benefits, including its ability to assist in soothing tension. Its also found in roses, geraniums, and lemongrass. Citronellol is an excellent complement to those looking to add therapeutic value to their strain selection. 
  37. Guaiol: Guaiol is a terpene that contributes its pine fragrance to the overall aroma of some strains in cannabis. It’s found in cypress pine, guaiacum plants, and cannabis. 
  38. Terpinene: Terpinene is a terpene that’s found in cardamom and marjoram oil and also in cannabis. It has a citrusy scent but, at the same time, is dank and musky. Terpinene has been found to help consumers relax.
  39. Alpha-Bisabolol: Alpha-Bisabolol is a rather rare terpene found in plants like the chamomile flower. It has a rather sweet and floral scent and has been historically used in cosmetics and tea making. 
  40. Geranyl Acetate: Geranyl Acetate has been found to be one of the contributors to the pleasant fruity aroma you may notice in some of your favorite strains. It can also be found naturally occurring in lemongrass, coriander, and sassafras.
  41. Geraniol: Geraniol is the terpene most commonly associated with the beautiful smell of geranium. This flavorful terpene is also found in roses, lemongrass, carrots, lemon zest, and our personal favorite—cannabis. 

Cannabinoids and different types of cannabinoids

  1. Cannabinoids: These are the naturally-occurring chemical compounds found in the cannabis plant that react with the human body’s endocannabinoid system. Cannabinoids, in conjunction with the body’s system of absorbing them, can cause temporary changes within a user’s nervous system, stress receptors, and mood. THC and CBD are the most well-known cannabinoids.
  2. Endocannabinoid system: The internal endocannabinoid system is an overall neuromodulatory system that promotes balance through intercell communication. Cannabis products naturally mirror the system by binding to the CB-1 and CB-2 receptors in the human brain. By acting like these molecules, cannabinoids can alter the effects of a user’s high.
  3. Total Active Cannabinoids (TAC): Total active cannabinoids represent the total amount of active cannabinoids during lab testing. This total of active cannabinoids considers all of the active compounds that the product holds.
  4. Cannabidiol (CBD): CBD is the second most prevalent cannabinoid, primarily produced by hemp plants and in lower amounts in cannabis. It works as a phytocannabinoid, or binding agent that adheres to an individual's endocannabinoid system. Cannabidiol has soared in popularity due to its lack of psychoactive effects. Most users seek CBD for its medicinal properties since it was the first cannabinoid to be approved by the FDA. Its healing properties include relaxation, reduced irritability, and eased restlessness.  
  5. Cannabinol (CBN): CBN is a cannabinoid that is created during the breakdown of THC by UV light and exposure to oxygen. This breakdown usually begins during the drying and curing process. This compound is mildly psychoactive and is best known for its sedative effects. Strains and products with high concentrations of CBN can be an excellent choice for users looking to utilize cannabis products to ease restlessness and promote healthy sleep.
  6. Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA): THCA is the non-psychoactive precursor to THC, the most famous cannabinoid of all. While THC is responsible for the psychoactive high that so many enjoy, THCA has shown great promise for relief without a minimal mental effect. THCA is found in its highest levels in living or freshly harvested cannabis samples. For this reason, some users choose to juice fresh cannabis leaves and flowers to get as much THCA as possible. 
  7. Cannabidiolic acid (CBDA): CBDA is a derivative of CBGA and the precursor to the well-known cannabinoid CBD. It is known for its overall calming effect in the body.
  8. Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV): THCV sets itself apart from its cousin THC with its distinct lack of psychoactive effects. THCV also acts as an allosteric modulator for Delta-9-THC, thus reducing its psychoactivity. 
  9. Cannabigerol (CBG): Cannabinoids are synthesized by Cannabigerolic acid. CBG is the decarboxylated form of this acid that appears at low levels in most cannabis plants. Because its properties are beneficial to multiple parts of the endocannabinoid system, CBG has a wide range of therapeutic uses. 
  10. Cannabichromene (CBC): CBC is a unique cannabinoid and is best known for its ability to bind to the TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptors in the brain, which perceive physical discomfort. Users report feeling relaxed after topical applications of products high in CBC.
  11. Cannabigerolic acid (CBGA): CBGA is often referred to as the “Father or Mother of all Cannabinoids”. This is because CBGA is situated at the very top of the cascading reaction that creates THCA, CBDA, and CBCA, which, through decarboxylation, are turned into the three major cannabinoids THC, CBD, and CBC. Currently, there is little research being conducted on the medical benefits of CBGA.
  12. Cannabichromenic acid (CBCA): CBCA is the raw form of the cannabinoid CBC. This cannabinoid is most commonly found in tropical and subtropical cannabis strains but can be found in lower concentrations in many common strains. 
  13. Cannabidivarin (CBDV): CBDV is a cannabinoid most commonly found in Asian and African landrace strains. This compound has been extensively researched for its ability to ease restlessness.
  14. Cannabichromevarin (CBCV): CBCV is best known for reducing physical discomfort and irritability. First discovered in Thailand and then isolated by researchers at the University of Nagasaki. It’s found in only trace amounts in cannabis compared to major cannabinoids like THC and CBD; more research into this cannabinoid is needed for us to know what else CBCV could be useful for. 
  15. Cannabigerovarinic acid (CBGVA): CBGVA is a cannabinoid acid that was first isolated by Japanese scientists in 1977. Currently, CBGVA is being researched for its ability to be converted into THCV in a lab setting. THCV has more current market viability when compared to the other derivatives of CBDVA, which are CBDV and CBGV.
  16. Tetrahydrocannabivarin acid (THCVA): THCVA is the cannabinoid acid precursor to the well-known cannabinoid THCV. Strains such as Durban Poison and other Haze varieties are recognized as containing high levels of THCVA and THCV. 
  17. Cannabigerivarin (CBGV): This derivative of CBG like many other cannabinoids, has no psychoactive effects. CBGV speeds up the metabolism of CBD, increasing its effectiveness when the two are paired together. 
  18. Cannabidivarinic acid (CBDVA): CBDVA is the acidic precursor of the cannabinoid CBDV. Although it has not been widely studied, CBDVA has shown promise in relieving minor pain and aiding in relaxation. 
  19. Cannabichromevarinic acid (CBCVA): CBCVA is derived from CBGVA and acts as the precursor compound to CBCV. CBCV is non-psychoactive, implying its parent compound may be as well. CBCVA is a rare cannabinoid without comprehensive research on its benefits within the endocannabinoid system.
  20. Cannabinolic acid (CBNA): CBNA is one of many compounds found within cannabis. After the process of decarboxylation, CBNA converts into cannabinol (CBN). Decarboxylation is when one compound converts into another by exposure to sunlight, ultraviolet light, or heat. CBNA is believed to portray similar benefits as CBN, which is mildly psychoactive and is best known for its sedative effects. Strains and products with high concentrations of CBN can be an excellent choice for users looking to utilize cannabis products to ease restlessness and promote healthy sleep.
  21. Cannabicyclol (CBL): CBL is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid that is created as cannabichromene (CBC) degrades over time. Not much is known about the possible therapeutic effects of CBL, as it is only found in minimal trace amounts during the testing process. 
  22. Cannabicitran (CBT-C): Cannabicitran a very rare minor cannabinoid. More research is needed to understand the additional effects of CBT-C and its uses for treating patients.
  23. Cannabicyclolic acid (CBLA): CBLA is a rare minor cannabinoid that has no known psychoactive effects. CBLA is formed as cannabichromenic acid (CBCA) is exposed to UV light and oxygen over time. Cannabicyclolic Acid is unique because it resists heat, thus resisting decarboxylation and creating only small amounts of CBL when heated. More research is needed to understand what potential health benefits CBLA has for cannabis users. 
  24. Delta 8-tetrahydrocannabinol (D8-THC):  Delta-8 THC is a cannabinoid with a similar structure to the better known Delta-9 THC. While similar to Delta-9 THC in design, Delta-8 THC is more often extracted from industrial hemp than medical-grade cannabis. The effects of Delta-8 THC are also similar to that of Delta-9 THC but much less potent. More research is needed to understand the additional impacts of Delta-8 THC and what uses it might have for treating patients. 
  25. Delta 9–tetrahydrocannabinol (D9-THC): Delta-9 THC is the primary compound found in the resinous glands of a cannabis plant and is directly responsible for psychoactive effects. It mirrors the body’s naturally occurring cannabinoids and attaches to these receptors to alter and enhance sensory perception. THC can create a feeling of euphoria. The amount of THC in a cannabis product can vary widely based on the method of consumption and the strain at the source of that product. The resulting high is often enhanced by the “entourage effect,” which combines multiple cannabinoids with various terpenes and individual body chemistry.  

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